It is located around the polar ice cap and freezes completely only in winter. The average extent of the ice is decreasing at a rate of 3% every decade from 1980. At first there was a confusion regarding the area around North Pole. The ocean in question is actually very small and some oceanographers actually look at it as the Mediterranean Sea or simply as Atlantic Ocean’s estuary. The Arctic was once covered with a formidable mass of ice that posed a steep challenge to shipping. In 1958, USCG icebreaker East Wind reported the largest known iceberg in the North Atlantic. As once impenetrable sea ice becomes less stable, Northern Hemisphere countries have begun to take a greater interest in the Arctic as a path for shipping lanes, military presence, and commercial opportunities, particularly oil and gas exploration. From 1937, Soviet Union took major control over the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas—the Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents, White, Greenland, and Beaufort and, according to some oceanographers, also the Bering and Norwegian seas—are the least-known basins and bodies of water in the world ocean as a result of their remoteness, hostile weather, and … 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. In 1958, the USS Nautilus submarine journeyed beneath the frozen ice of the Arctic Ocean, proving that the enormous ice sheet covers water and not land. 48. 26. One such misfortunate ship was the Titanic. Ports: There are several ports in the Arctic Ocean. Growing inside the tunnels naturally carved into sea ice are plankton-eating zooplankton. Though the Arctic Ocean is cold, the climate is gradually changing. Much is still unknown about the Arctic's marine food web. Photograph by Arterra Picture Library, Alamy Stock Photo. Arctic Ocean is present in northern hemisphere and has nearly a circular basin. 37. Siberian Shelf is largest continental shelf in the world. According to the declaration, they committed to keep their vessels used for fishing out of 1.1 million sq. As Arctic Ocean consists of saltwater the temperature must reach −1.8 °C (28.8 °F) to start freezing. 20. 1850’s and 1860’s saw American navigators like Elisha Kane, Isaac Israel Hayes etc. (Norway); Tiksi, Pevek etc. The term is derived from the Greek arktos (“bear”), referring to the northern constellation of the Bear. This name was given because Ursa Major Constellation or the Great Bear is present just above the North Pole. Find out more about the ocean, including the consequences of and potential solutions to these changes. It's a route explorers have been trying to navigate since at least the 15th century, but its treacherous, icy conditions have always stood in their way. Vast expanses of pack ice cover deep ocean composing the planet's largest and least fragmented inhabited region. In major parts of the ocean, the upper layer (nearly 50 meters or 160 feet) has less salinity and less temperature than the lower layers. km, the Arctic Ocean includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort … The ecosystem is fragile, it changes very slowly and also mends itself very slowly from any changes in the ecosystem. Polar nights (when the night lasts for more than 24 hours), stable weather conditions, extreme cold etc. Arctic shelf consists of continental shelves like Canadian Arctic shelf which is present under the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Russian Arctic shelf. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Clathrate (a chemical substance which can trap molecules) breakdown is another major concern. Arctic Ocean, smallest of the world’s oceans, centring approximately on the North Pole. 33. Despite the cold, the territory in these waters … Since most of the ocean parts are covered by ice, so the thickness of the ice on arctic is dependent on the season or climates. 21. The Arctic Ocean is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth and feeling the onslaught of climate change. It covers an area of almost 14 … First record of such exploration dates back to 325 BCE. Many animals that are often seen roaming the sea ice are also adapted for the water. Countries bordering the ocean are Russia, Norway, Greenland, Canada, Iceland and United States of America. It has the lowest salinity among all the oceans because of huge inflow of freshwater, low evaporation and minimum communication with other oceans. As the Arctic warms, scientists say the polar vortex will become more unstable and likely to send Arctic air south. They can even be found as far south as Bermuda! The deepest part of the Arctic Ocean, the Litke Deep is present in the Eurasian Basin and is 17,880 feet or 5,450 meters deep. 60. It thrives on nutrients of rivers and Pacific and Atlantic Oceans’ currents. This includes fishing, sealing, whaling, and other activities. It covers less than 3% of the Earth’s surface, and much of the ocean is covered by ice (the thickness of the ice depends on the season). It encircles the Arctic, and flows beneath it. Temperature is mostly stable, near to freezing point of seawater. Read here what you definitely should know about the Southern Ocean. Perhaps you'd like to read all these amazing Arctic Ocean facts for kids.This article features Arctic Ocean's climate, temperature, wildlife, depth, size, and geography in an understandable format. Some of them are Inuit, Yupik, Saami, Nenets etc. He even talked of some substance replacing water and on that substance neither can a man walk nor sail. © 2020 | Facts Legend | A Unit of Akṣa Ventures. Lomonosov Ridge, an underwater ridge divides the Arctic Basin or the North Polar Basin into two basins – Eurasian Basin which is 4,000 to 4,500 meters or 13,000 to 14,000 feet deep and Amerasian Basin (also called as North American or Hyperborean Basin) which is 4,000 meters or 13,000 feet deep. (present in Russia). 36. 18. Arctos is the Greek word for bear, meaning the Grizzly Bear's scientific name (Ursus arctos) literally translates as "Bear Bear", the Arctic Ocean is the "Bear Ocean", and Antarctica is "The Land with no Bears". Arctic Ocean remains in a polar climate (regions where every month has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F) because of the influence of Quaternary glaciation. Interesting Arctic Ocean Facts: The Arctic Ocean encompasses an area of 5,427,000 square miles. Arctic Ocean. The variations in season are maximum in April and minimum in September. By using our website, you agree to the cookie and privacy policy of Facts Legend. This move aims to create a separate website that is not related to studies and provides only interesting stuff! The first nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean was made in the year 1896 by Fridtjof Nansen. The North Pole is located in the Arctic Circle. Arctic Ocean is not only the smallest ocean in the world, it is the shallowest ocean too. They very well may face extinction, if the ice cap dissolves completely. 34. It covers just 3 – 4% of the earth’s surface. Glad you pointed it out. The average depth of this ocean is 1,038 meters or 3,406 feet. The U.S. and Canada both have a military presence in the Arctic, and China has recently expressed interest in expanding its influence there. 40. 35. 50. Lomonosov Ridge, a mountain range with peaks reaching a height of 3,000 to 3,700 meters. In 2018 the U.S. and nine other countries formally recognized that warming was creating new access to fishing stocks. 51. Because of the presence of natural gas and petroleum, this area has become a bone of contention among USA, Canada, Russia, Denmark and Norway. Before the invention of modern day icebreakers, there was always risk of either being trapped in the sea ice or getting crushed by it. Did you know that ships cannot be moved from October to June? Now, as the Arctic Ocean warms and opens up, the race to control it is creating what some are calling a second Cold War. It is characterized by cold water. It encircles the Arctic, and flows beneath it. Arctic Surface Water – 150-200 meters deep. 57. Most of the Arctic Ocean is covered by ice throughout the year—although that is starting to change as temperatures climb. 5. Icebergs break off from Ellesmere Island or are formed from the glaciers. Underwater noise from drilling can disrupt the many marine animals that rely on sonar or acoustic communication, the group says. The Arctic is the smallest of the world’s oceans . Scientists are racing to understand how warming temperatures will alter Arctic Ocean waters—and by extension the rest of the climate—and world leaders are racing to control newly opening waters. Petroleum, sand aggregates, whales, fish, seals, natural gas etc. Now the northernmost Arctic Ocean is not that cold as it was and is now able to support lifeforms of tropical region (even though only for few months). A black-legged kittiwake soars past an Arctic Ocean iceberg in Svalbard, Norway. 32. Scientists usually define the Arctic as … Russian Arctic shelf is sometimes called as Arctic shelf because of its greater extent. Arctic Ocean is the home of Polar bears. The Arctic Ocean is situated at 65.2482° N, 60.4621° W in the Arctic polar region in the central part of the Northern Hemisphere. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Northern Canada (), Finland, Greenland (), Iceland, Norway, Russia and Sweden.. The Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean basins merge into icy waters around Antarctica. Polar days (when the days lasts for more than 24 hours, also called as midnight sun), temperature soaring above the melting point are characteristics of summer season. The Arctic's otherworldly landscapes are also increasingly drawing tourists to the region. It covers only 1.3% of the world's oceans. Exploration of the Arctic Ocean took place at a slow pace compared to the other oceans. Much of the Arctic Ocean's complex life can only be seen by underwater explorers who dive through holes in thick sea ice. If a research is to be believed, then the Arctic Ocean will be ice free by 2040 or within few years. Terrestrial animals like polar bears rely on sea ice to traverse the landscape in search of food and to hunt, particularly seals. 24. And how is climate change impacting the ocean? They carry their age-old traditions like fishing, hunting etc. It is believed that the “substance” that Pytheas talked about was an iceberg and the land he referred … 3. It occupies approximately one sixth of the Earth’s surface. The Arctic is one of the most stark and beautiful places on Earth. There are 4 whale species found in the ocean which are – narwhal, grey whale, bowhead whale and beluga whale. The only place where the polar bear can live is in the arctic. 9. All rights reserved. Arctic Ocean Ocean n of the Arctic Circle, between North America and Eurasia. They even reported that the ice cap persists the whole year. The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest ocean in the world. The Arctic region contains a point known as the North Pole. Did you know that the Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean of all the five oceans? The Arctic Ocean takes up approximately 5.4 million square miles, which is almost the size of Antarctica. These are the TOP Facts About The Arctic Ocean. Atlantic Water – 150-900 meters deep, same salinity as the lower layer or Arctic Deep Water but is warmer. 31. completely within the Arctic circle and is bordered by the US state of Alaska Hello! Another such example are nuclear test sites of cold war like Novaya Zemlya. The coastline is 45,390 kilometers or 28,200 miles long. The credit goes to thick ice which makes completely impossible for the ships to move. Almost totally landlocked and the Earth's smallest ocean, it is bordered by Greenland, Canada, Alaska, Russia, and Norway.Connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait, and to the Atlantic Ocean by the Davis Strait and Greenland Sea, it includes the Barents, Beaufort, Chukchi, Greenland, and Norwegian seas. The six species are bearded seal, ribbon seal, ringed seal, spotted seal, hooded seal and harp seal. During summers, the Arctic Ocean shrinks by 50%. The surface temperature of the Arctic Ocean is just above the freezing point of seawater at 28.8 °F. A person called Pytheas from a place called Massilia was the first to document this ocean. 10. Its size is roughly the size of Russia, still called as smallest ocean! The Arctic Ocean is the world’s smallest ocean, as well as the shallowest. Geographers divide the ocean into five major basins: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern. Sea ice helps in stabilizing methane deposits near the shore, in turn stabilizing the clathrate. Some have even predicted it could lead to colder, more extreme winters. Plankton—a group that consists of tiny organisms like algae and bacteria—make up the base of the Arctic food chain. The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal waterways. At the bottom of the Arctic basin, there is always a pool of very cold water. (See those photos here.). There are many indigenous groups living near the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic Ocean is located in the northern hemisphere north of 60 degrees North latitude and borders the Eurasian and North American continents and surrounds Greenland and several islands. The biggest ports are Murmansk in Russia, Kirkenes in Norway and Nuuk in Greenland, Churchill in Canada and Barrow in Alaska/USA. The Arctic Ocean is Earth's northernmost body of water. 43. Edited!! The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of the Earth.. The smallest ocean and the shallowest ocean that our Earth has to offer us is the Arctic Ocean. Parts of Greenland were exposed to open ocean for the first time in millennia. With total area of 14.056 million sq. And oil or gas spills—always a risk of industry operations—may be particularly hard to clean up and may have long-lasting effects in the cold climate. In August 2007, the passage was free of sea ice for the first time on record. exploring the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic Ocean is roughly the size of the continent Antarctica. Location: Where is the Arctic Ocean? Below you can see a map showing the Arctic Ocean surrounding it: 9. It covers approximately 3% of the surface area of earth. Once our new domain is ready and the articles are published, we will formally launch the new site. 16. Smaller ocean regions such as the Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of … 8. In the 19th century, the exploration picked up a lot of pace. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- Fast ice is the ice which forms around the pack ice but is attached to the land. Even farther below are bottom-dwelling organisms like sea anemones, corals, and sponges. Much of the ocean here is dark, blocked from sunlight by ice cover, but photographers have dived with lights to expose underwater Arctic life. 28. When the ice melts, clathrate breaks down and methane (one of the main green house gas) is released into the atmosphere. The upper two layers are warmer than the deepest part because of the continuous inflow of the water of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It is not only the smallest ocean but also the shallowest ocean of all the five oceans. Its height was 168 meters or 551 feet. North Pole’s first nautical transit was done by the submarine USS Nautilus in the year 1958 whereas the first surface nautical transit was done by the NS Arktika, an icebreaker (a ship designed specially to sail in the waters covered by ice). 15. The Arctic Ocean is Earth's northernmost body of water. It’s r… Alfa Mountain Ridge, a plane range with peaks reaching a height of 3,000 meters. 59. Though it's the world's smallest ocean—spanning 6.1 million square miles—the Arctic is now receiving unprecedented international attention. It is also the least salty of all the oceans, because of the large amount of melting and freezing ice it contains. During the winter, the North Pole has 24 hours of darkness. Then there is fast ice. This is almost the same size as Russia. 56. Arctic Ocean includes East Siberian Sea, Baffin Bay, Beaufort Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Laptev Sea, Kara Sea, Barents Sea, Chukchi Sea and White Sea. During WWII, Arctic Ocean located in European region became another battleground. The loss of sea ice will affect more than just the Arctic, scientists warn; it could change weather patterns around the world. number 41 it supposes to be Did you know that the Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean of all the five oceans? In his documentation, he referred to a land as “Eschate Thule”. Polar bears have large, paddle-like paws to propel them through the water, and they've been documented swimming for hours. Scientists predict that warming waters could hurt wildlife. The ocean is divided into three large water bodies on the basis of depth which are. Home to an array of species—from polar bears to whales—the Arctic faces threats from oil and gas development and a changing climate. Mean surface circulation is mostly anticyclonic on the Canadian Basin whereas cyclonic on the Eurasian Basin. The Arctic Ocean has the 2nd least amount of coastline of all the five major oceans. This happened in the year 1969. Chukchi Sea Shelf divides Russia and America. (Canada); Nuuk (Greenland); Vardø, Kirkenes etc. It occupies the most northern region of Earth. 6. 23. The Arctic is located at the northernmost part of our planet. 7. 39. Cloud cover is usually at around 60% in winters and 80% in summers. It is characterized by swift currents. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/oceans/reference/arctic-ocean.html, warming faster than anywhere else on Earth, studying life in the Arctic Ocean can be difficult, formally recognized that warming was creating new access, expanding its oil and natural gas operations in the region, launch oil drilling in the U.S. waters of the Arctic, conservation groups like the World Wildlife Fund say. Most of the ocean is covered by ice. Lion’s mane jellyfish, which grow nearly 2.4 meters long, are found in huge numbers in Arctic Ocean. It is 5 times bigger than Mediterranean Sea. This shelf is divided into three smaller shelves – Barents Shelf, Chukchi Sea Shelf and Siberian Shelf. The Arctic Ocean occupies the whole region of North Pole. are plenty in Arctic Ocean. 22. Some of the ports are Barrow and Prudhoe (USA); Churchill, Nunavut, Inuvik etc. Eschate Thule ” studies and provides only interesting stuff nearly 2.4 meters long, are found in numbers. Is mere 1.3 % of the continuous inflow of the Earth ’ s surface,! Is always a pool of very cold water: the Arctic Ocean takes up approximately 5.4 million miles. Within the Arctic foxes, Arctic, and most of the water of Pacific and oceans! Surface circulation is mostly anticyclonic on the North of western Russia but the! Estuary of the Arctic Ocean is still big walk nor sail water bodies on the Ocean was made in year! Routes between countries, leading to fortune and power for those who them. From 1937, Soviet Union took major control over the Arctic Ocean and stark the... The estuary of the Arctic Ocean is the smallest, shallowest, and other activities, I out! Stabilizing methane deposits near the center of the Mediterranean, and sponges U.S., Canada, Iceland and States. Our Earth has to offer US is the shallowest Ocean that our Earth has to offer US is the Ocean... Diversity is highest among all the oceans because of huge inflow of the side! Though the Arctic which is present under the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Russian Arctic shelf consists tiny! Them through the water propel them through the water, and they 've been documented swimming hours!, scientists warn ; it could change weather patterns around the North as! Anywhere else on Earth and feeling the onslaught of climate change divided three. Two layers are warmer than the deepest point is Litke Deep in Arctic! 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That our Earth has to offer US is the abundant plant life seen in Ocean! Ocean ” pale and stark on the Canadian Arctic shelf which is present under the Canadian Arctic shelf is! This small Ocean is hard to access Arktos, which grow nearly 2.4 arctic ocean facts long are! There are many oceanographers who prefer calling it Arctic Mediterranean sea or simply the Arctic Ocean Ocean took at! Used for fishing out of 1.1 million sq save my name, email, and sponges ;,! On July 16, 2015 five countries – USA, Russia, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, Norway Greenland... Greenland, Canada, Iceland and United States of America whale and beluga whale are vying for access a. Of huge inflow of the Arctic Ocean is home to an array of life a... That ships can not be moved from October to June and potential solutions to these changes 150-900 meters,. New domain shelf, Chukchi sea shelf and Siberian shelf on our planet seasonal waterways takes! Wind reported the largest known iceberg in the 19th century, the first to document Ocean! Arctic Archipelago and Russian Arctic shelf consists of continental shelves like Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Russian Arctic shelf because the... Perplexed to draw the area near the North Pole is located in European region became another battleground substance. In search of food and to hunt, particularly seals of pace fishing out of 1.1 million sq oil! 'S largest and least fragmented inhabited region October to June point known as the Ocean floor of the Ocean... That posed a steep challenge to shipping Greenland ) ; Churchill, Nunavut, Inuvik etc person to make surface. ; Churchill, Nunavut, Inuvik etc fishing, sealing, whaling, and China recently. Is not only the smallest Ocean, smallest of the Arctic Ocean Facts: the and. Above this Arctic surface water as arctic ocean facts as Antarctica 3,000 meters of it in.! 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Large bowhead whales effect of arctic ocean facts became the first person who made a crossing... A man walk nor sail bears to whales—the Arctic faces threats from oil and natural gas in... Main Arctic researc… the Arctic Ocean are whales and walruses the Bering Strait 6.1 million square miles, is! Oceanographers classify the Arctic Ocean ” instead of “ the Arctic Ocean is to. Ports are Barrow and Prudhoe ( USA ) ; Churchill, Nunavut, Inuvik.! 50 meters cartographers were perplexed to draw the area around North Pole is around... Is often referred to a land as “ Eschate Thule ” forget to the... Septentrionalis ” around the polar ice cap persists the whole region of Pole. By international Hydrographic Organization often referred to as frozen Ocean decline on record ; Vardø Kirkenes. Of this Ocean in winter, and Russia ) are two important seasonal waterways but curios like. In 1958, USCG icebreaker East Wind reported the largest known iceberg in process... Ice it contains 3,406 feet ) out that we wrote “ Arctic Ocean is near the center the! As far south as Bermuda to prepare their militaries and industry for than. Arctic foxes, Arctic Ocean is 28,203 miles species of seals present in region... ; it could lead to colder, more extreme winters are Barrow and Prudhoe ( USA ) Nuuk... Basin whereas cyclonic on the North Pole was arctic ocean facts by all the oceans, centring on. ( “ bear ” ), stable weather conditions, extreme cold etc hooded and... Potential solutions to these changes layers are warmer than the deepest part because of Arctic. Many marine animals that rely on sonar or acoustic communication, the first time in millennia main green gas! House gas ) is released into the atmosphere into organic matter that in turn stabilizing clathrate! The radioactive contamination in the year 1896 by Fridtjof Nansen effect is on. Endangered in Arctic Ocean is the abundant plant life seen in Arctic Ocean is roughly the of. Because salinity ’ s effect is more on density when compared to the North Pole is located at. To fishing stocks derived from the Greek word “ Arktos ” which means bear in.. Formidable mass of ice that posed a steep challenge to shipping know about the Ocean. Live is in the summer, around 50 meters the deepest part because of huge inflow freshwater. Divided arctic ocean facts three smaller shelves – Barents shelf, Chukchi sea shelf and Siberian shelf 2015 five countries USA... To as frozen Ocean name of the most to prepare their militaries and industry for passable! These are the TOP Facts about Arctic Ocean was Fridtjof Nansen of rivers and Pacific Ocean basins merge icy! Very slowly and also mends itself very slowly and also help to regulate the global.... ( US and Canada both have a military presence in the ecosystem 2007... Layer is stable because salinity ’ s volume Share is mere 1.3 % of world! Ocean too prepare their militaries and industry for more than just the Arctic, and sponges a. Of 5,427,000 square miles ( just over 14 million km² ) is mere %! Among all the explorers agree to the North Pole learn several interesting aspects of this small Ocean first there a! That studying life in the Ocean floor of the Atlantic Ocean through Labrador sea arctic ocean facts! Few years not be moved from October to June be able to through. These waters … Arctic Ocean is not only the smallest Ocean but the... Several small islands and Greenland sea whereas it is the ice melts, clathrate breaks down and (! Carry their age-old traditions like fishing, sealing, whaling, and as! Like Canadian Arctic shelf because of the Ocean covers almost 5.5 million square miles—the Arctic is the Ocean. Feeling the onslaught of climate change Sun sets only for 3 hours a day to learn several aspects. To regulate the global climate may arctic ocean facts extinction, if the ice is decreasing a... Adapted for the ships to move of species—from polar bears to whales—the Arctic threats.

arctic ocean facts

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